Andaman & Nicobar, a group of picturesque islands situated on the South Eastern part of the Bay of Bengal have great nautical importance. History of Andaman and Nicobar islands dates way back to the settlement of British East India company in the territory of islands. As per the history Marco Polo was the first traveller from the west to reach this conglomeration of islands. It's also been recorded that Kanhoji Angre, a Maratha admiral, is said to have his base in Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the early eighteenth century. But later he was defeated by the British and Portuguese forces.
In the year 1789 British established their colony in Andaman and Nicobar islands. But very soon in the year 1796 British lost control over the islands. The islands abandoned the British. In nineteenth century British resumed control over the company. During this period English East India Company established a penal colony where criminals convicted for crime against the Company were kept. Many of the political leaders suspected to be dangerous against the company and many criminals were deported from the mainland with a life sentence to the cellular jail situated on the sea coast of Atlanta point in the North Eastern part of the Port Blair. The convicts were forced to live in the island. Thus these islands were also known as ‘The Black Water Prison’ or Kala pani.
The Second World War introduced Japanese to the islands. On March 21, 1942, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands went under Japanese regime. At the initial level there was an amicable relation between Japan and the aborigines. Japanese taught the aborigines to grow crops and constructed roads. But later Japanese suspected the natives to have a relation with the British. This resulted in violent battle between the both and the death of many natives. This incident had a positive impact on natives, they become self sufficient.
By the end of 1947 that is after Indian Independence the island formed a part of the Indian Union. After Independence, so many Bengali's came to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on the rehabilitation scheme of the Government of India. The rehabilitation period started at the year 1949 ended by the year 1970. Apart from Bengalis, many other communities from India settled in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. These communities include Tamilians, Marathis, Malayalis and Punjabis. Today the island is among the seven union territories of India.